Republic of Serbia
Република Србија (Serbian)
Republika Srbija  (Serbian)
"Боже правде" / "Bože pravde"
(English: "God of Justice")
Location of Serbia (green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo (light green) in Europe (dark grey).
Location of Serbia (green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo (light green) in Europe (dark grey).
and largest city
44°48′N 20°28′E / 44°48′N 20°28′E / 44.800; 20.467
Official languagesSerbian
Ethnic groups (2011)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
• President
Aleksandar Vučić
Ana Brnabić
LegislatureNational Assembly
late 8th century
• Independent republic
5 June 2006
• Including Kosovo
88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi) (111th)
• Excluding Kosovo
77,474 km2 (29,913 sq mi)[1]
• 2017 estimate
7,040,272 (excluding Kosovo) Decrease[2] (104th)
• Density
91.1/km2 (235.9/sq mi) (121th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$112.475 billion[3] (78th)
• Per capita
$16,063 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (83rd)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$42.378 billion[3] (86th)
• Per capita
$6,052 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (88th)
Gini (2013)29.6[4]
HDI (2015)Increase 0.776[5]
high · 66th
CurrencySerbian dinar (RSD)
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST)
Drives on theright
Calling code+381
ISO 3166 codeRS
Internet TLD
  1. From the fall of Smederevo until conquest of Belgrade, Mačva and Vojvodina

Serbia (Serbian: Србија / Srbija [sř̩bija]),[note 1] officially the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Република Србија / Republika Srbija [repǔblika sř̩bija]), is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads of Central[6] and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.[7] It borders Hungary to the north; Romania and Bulgaria to the east; Macedonia to the south; Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the west and claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia numbers around 7 million residents.[8] Its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the oldest and largest cities in southeastern Europe.[9][7]

Following the Slavic migrations to the Balkans postdating the 6th century, Serbs established several states in the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by Rome and the Byzantine Empire in 1217, reaching its peak in 1346 as a relatively short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entire modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century, while maintaining a foothold in modern-day Vojvodina. In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory.[10] Following disastrous casualties in World War I, and the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina (and other territories) with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, which dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community.

Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA and it is acceding to the WTO.[11] Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025[12] and is the only country in the current enlargement agenda which is designated as "free" by Freedom House.[13] Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality. An upper-middle income economy[14] with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high by the Human Development Index (66th),[15] Social Progress Index (45th)[16] as well as the Global Peace Index (54th).[17]


The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs (Serbian: Srbi / Срби) and Sorbs (Upper Sorbian: Serbja; Lower Sorbian: Serby) in different variants: Surbii, Suurbi, Serbloi, Zeriuani, Sorabi, Surben, Sarbi, Serbii, Serboi, Zirbi, Surbi, Sorben,[18] etc. These authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical (or current) presence was/is not disputed (notably in the Balkans and Lusatia), but there are also sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World (most notably in the Asiatic Sarmatia in the Caucasus).

Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb (пасерб, "stepson"), Ukrainian pryserbytysia (присербитися, "join in"), Old Indic sarbh- ("fight, cut, kill"), Latin sero ("make up, constitute"), and Greek siro (ειρω, "repeat").[19] However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond (1906–1982) derived the denomination of Srb from srbati (cf. sorbo, absorbo).[20] Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать (Russian), сьорбати (Ukrainian), сёрбаць (Belarusian), srbati (Slovak), сърбам(Bulgarian) and серебати (Old Russian).[21]

From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia".