Romania

Romania
România  (Romanian)
Anthem: Deșteaptă-te, române!
'"Awaken thee, Romanian!"

EU-Romania (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Romania.svg
Location of  Romania  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Bucharest
44°25′N 26°06′E / 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417; 26.100
Official languagesRomanian[1]
Recognised minority
languages[2]
Ethnic groups (2011[3])
DemonymRomanian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential
republic
• President
Klaus Iohannis
Viorica Dăncilă
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Formation
168 BC
106
275 – 10th century
• First Romanian polities
10th century – 1330
1330
1346
1570
• First union under Michael the Brave
1600
24 January 1859
9 May 1877 / 1878b
14 March 1881
1 December 1918d
Area
• Total
238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi) (81st)
• Water (%)
3
Population
• 2017 estimate
19,638,000 Decrease[4] (59th)
• 2011 census
20,121,641[3] (58th)
• Density
84.4/km2 (218.6/sq mi) (117th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$474.032 billion[5] (42nd)
• Per capita
$25,533 (61st)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$204.943 billion[5] (49th)
• Per capita
$11,817 (67th)
Gini (2013)Steady 34[6]
medium
HDI (2015)Increase 0.802[7]
very high · 50th
CurrencyRomanian Leu (RON)
Time zoneEET (UTC+2)
• Summer (DST)
EEST (UTC+3)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (AD)
Drives on theright
Calling code+40
Patron saintSaint Andrew
ISO 3166 codeRO
Internet TLD.roe
  1. The double election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza in Moldavia and Wallachia (respectively, 5 and 24 January 1859).
  2. Independence proclaimed on 9 May 1877, internationally recognised in 1878.
  3. The union of Romania with Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania in 1918.
  4. Monarchy was abolished on 30 December 1947 upon the proclamation of the People's Republic and was changed with the new constitution upon its adoption on 21 August 1965 as the Socialist Republic. The Communist regime fell on 22 December 1989, the new democratic government was installed on 20 May 1990 and the new post-communist constitution was adopted on 21 November 1991. Romania joined the European Union on 1 January 2007.
  5. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Romania (ə/ (About this sound listen) MAY-nee-ə; Romanian: România Listenia]) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to south-east, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to south-west, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest and other major urban areas include Iași, Timișoara, Cluj-Napoca and Constanța.

The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km (1,775 mi), coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m (8,346 ft).[8]

Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Banat, Bukovina, and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. During World War II, Romania was an Axis power and, consequently, an ally of Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, fighting side by side with the Wehrmacht until 1944, when it joined the Allies and faced occupation by the Red Army's forces. Throughout wartime Romania had lost several territories, of which only Northern Transylvania was regained after the war. Following the war, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition towards democracy and a capitalist market economy.

Romania is a developing country[9][10] and ranks 50th in the Human Development Index. It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7% (2017), the highest in the EU at the time.[11] Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language.

Etymology

Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome".[12] The first known use of the appellation was attested in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia.[13][14][15][16]

Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian.

The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung",[17] is also notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească (old spelling for "The Romanian Land"; țeara from the Latin terra, "land"; current spelling: Țara Românească).

Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably[a] until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning.[18] After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român.[b] Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia."[19]

The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century.[c] The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861.[20]

In English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania or Roumania.[21] Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975.[22] Romania is also the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government.[23] A handful of other languages (including Italian, Hungarian, Portuguese, and Norwegian) have also switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie, German and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumanía, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния (Rumyniya), and Japanese ルーマニア (Rūmania).

Official names