Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal


The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.[according to whom?] The foundation era covers the years between 1300 (Byzantine expedition) and 1453 (Fall of Constantinople), the classical period covers the years between 1451 (enthronement of Sultan Mehmed II) and 1606 (Peace of Zsitvatorok), the reformation period covers the years between 1606 and 1826 (Vaka-i Hayriye), the modernisation period covers the years between 1826 and 1858 and decline period covers the years between 1861 (enthronement of Sultan Abdülaziz) and 1918 (Armistice of Mudros).

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Battle of Vienna

The Battle of Vienna (Polish: Odsiecz Wiedeńska, German: Schlacht am Kahlenberg, Ukrainian: Віденська відсіч (Viděns'ka Vidsič), Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması) took place on September 11 and September 12, 1683 after Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. The battle broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe, and marked the political hegemony of Habsburg dynasty.

The large-scale battle was won by Polish-Austrian-German forces led by King of Poland Jan III Sobieski against the Ottoman Empire army commanded by Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha.

The siege itself began on 14 July 1683, by the Ottoman Empire army of approximately 138,000 men (although a large number of these played no part in the battle, as only 50,000 were experienced soldiers(Turks), and the rest less-motivated supporting troops. (Read more...)

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Piri Reis

Piri Reis (full name Hadji Muhiddin Piri Ibn Hadji Mehmed) (about 14651554 or 1555) was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral and cartographer born between 1465 and 1470 in Gallipoli on the Aegean coast of Turkey.

He is primarily known today for his maps and charts collected in his Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation), a book which contains detailed information on navigation as well as extremely accurate charts describing the important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea. He gained fame as a cartographer when a small part of his first world map (prepared in 1513) was discovered in 1929 at Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. The most surprising aspect was the presence of the Americas on an Ottoman map, making it the first Turkish map ever drawn of the Americas -- although not the first ever, which was drawn by pilot and cartographer Juan de la Cosa in 1500 and is conserved in the naval museum (Museo Naval) in Madrid.

The most striking characteristic of the first world map (1513) of Piri Reis, however, is the level of accuracy in positioning the continents (particularly the relation between Africa and South America) which was unparalleled for its time. Even maps drawn decades later did not have such accurate positioning and proportions; a quality which can be observed in other maps of Piri Reis in his Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation). The map of Piri Reis perfectly fits an azimuthal equidistant projection of the world centered in Cairo, and some believe it's also the oldest surviving map of Antarctica, despite being drawn more than three centuries before the official discovery of that continent.

In 1528 Piri Reis drew a second world map, of which a small fragment showing Greenland and North America from Labrador and Newfoundland in the north to Florida, Cuba and parts of Central America in the south still survives.

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The people think of wealth and power as the greatest fate, But in this world a spell of health is the best state. What men call sovereignty is a worldly strife and constant war; Worship of God is the highest throne, the happiest of all estate's.

For the throne, by Suleiman the Magnificent

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The Russian-Circassian War is the name given to the period of hostilities between the Russian Empire and the inhabitants of Circassia during the Russian invasion and occupation of the Circassian region. Circassia, (also known as Cherkessia in Russian) was a region in disambiguation needed] which comprised the coastline and most of the interior of the current territory of Krasnodar Krai.[1] The historical region was named after the traditional inhabitants, the Circassians, Adyghe or Adiga, along with a number of smaller ethnic groups and tribes. The Russian–Circassian conflict took place from the initial arrival of Russian forces in 1763 to the signing of several Russian loyalty oaths by, among others, Circassian leaders on June 2, 1864, (May 21, O.S.), an event which signalled the end of the larger Caucasian War of which the Russian–Circassian conflict had become a part.

These loyalty oaths illustrated what had become a total occupation of the region by Russian forces, the result of over 100 years of conflict, which also involved the forced expulsion of millions of indigenous Circassians to areas of the Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Kosovo,[2] with some historians citing that up to 4,000,000 civilians perished as a result of the exodus.


  1. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organisation (UNPO) Circassia article retrieved on April 4, 2007
  2. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organisation (UNPO) Circassia article retrieved on April 4, 2007

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Growth of the Ottoman Empire
Military &
political history
Growth of the Ottoman Empire
Time span230 years
Number of Sultans12
See alsoGraphical timeline


Rise of the Ottoman Empire (12991453)

Growth of the Ottoman Empire (14531683)

Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire (16831827)

Decline of the Ottoman Empire (18281908)

Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (19081922)

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From the Ottoman military history task force of the Military history WikiProject:

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Battle of al-Samn • 3rd Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire) • 4th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire) • 6th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire) • 8th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire) • 11th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire) • 12th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire) • 13th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire) • 14th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire) • 15th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire) • Ottoman-Turkoman wars • Georgian-Ottoman wars • Muhammad Qasim Khan-e Qajar Quyunlu • Hasan Ali Mirza • Kaikhusru Mirza • Abul Husain Mirza • Jaafar Quli Khan-e Khajar Quyunlu • Mirza Muhammad Khan-e Qajar Devehlu • Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khan-e Farahani • Agha Vali Khan • Mirza Husain Khan Qazvini • Mirza Muhammad Bakir Khan • Muhammed Said of Egypt • Muhammed Tawfik of Egypt • Hasan Ismail Pasha • Muhammed Ratib Pasha • Ibrahim Hilmi Pasha • Guido von Usedom • Sayyid Ahmed Pasha as-Sanussi • Muhammed Pasha Jahangiri • Muhammed Said Pasha • Mahmud Adam Pasha • Mahmud Jalal ud-din Pasha • Yahya Mansur Yeghen Pasha • Muhammed Nuri Pasha • Ibrahim Fahmi Ahmed Pasha • Hasan Ismail Pasha • Muhammed Pasha • Zulkiful Ahmed Pasha • Ali Khalid Pasha • Ali Nur ud-din Pasha • Muhammed Kamal ud-din Pasha • Deli Fuad Pasha • Muhammed Tusun Pasha • Ahmed Ayub Pasha • Arif Pasha • Ahmed Fathi Pasha • Velip Pasha • Kasim Pasha Jalimoglu • Ibrahim Hilmi Ismail Pasha • Haji Muhammed Ali Pasha Alioglu • Hasan Husni Pasha Bozcandali • Siege of Senj
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Battle of KeresztesBattle of MaritsaJajce Castle9th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)7th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire);
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