Republic of the Philippines
Republika ng Pilipinas
"Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1]
"For God, People, Nature, and Country"
Anthem: Lupang Hinirang
Chosen Land
Great Seal
Seal of the Philippines.svg
Dakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Tagalog)
Great Seal of the Philippines
Location of the Philippines
14°35′N 120°58′E / 14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583; 120.967
Largest cityQuezon City
14°38′N 121°02′E / 14°38′N 121°02′E / 14.633; 121.033
Official languages
Recognized regional languages
National languageFilipino
Auxiliary languageb
Ethnic groups (2010[3])
(masculine or neutral)
(colloquial masculine)
(colloquial feminine)
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Rodrigo Duterte
Leni Robredo
Vicente Sotto III
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Antonio Carpio (acting)
House of Representatives
Formation of the republic e
June 12, 1898
• Treaty of Paris (1898) / Spanish Cessionc
December 10, 1898
January 21, 1899
March 24, 1934
May 14, 1935
July 4, 1946
February 2, 1987
• Total
300,000[4][5] km2 (120,000 sq mi) (63rd)
• Water (%)
0.61[6] (inland waters)
• Land
• 2018 estimate
• 2015 census
100,981,437[8] (13th)
• Density
294/km2 (761.5/sq mi) (47th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$955.587 billion[9]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$332.449 billion[9]
• Per capita
Gini (2012)43.0[10]
medium · 44th
HDI (2015)Increase 0.682[11]
medium · 116th
CurrencyPeso (₱) (PHP)
Time zonePST (UTC+8)
• Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC+8)
Date format
  • mm-dd-yyyy
  • dd-mm-yyyy (AD)
Drives on theright[12]
Calling code+63
ISO 3166 codePH
  1. ^ While Manila proper is designated as the nation's capital, the whole of National Capital Region (NCR) is designated as seat of government, hence the name of a region. This is because it has many national government institutions aside from Malacanang Palace and some agencies/institutions that are located within the capital city.[13]
  2. ^ The 1987 Philippine constitution specifies "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis."[14]
  3. ^ Filipino revolutionaries declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, but Spain ceded the islands to the United States for $20 million in the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898 which eventually led to the Philippine–American War.
  4. ^ The United States of America recognized the independence of the Philippines on July 4, 1946, through the Treaty of Manila.[15] This date was chosen because it corresponds to the U.S. Independence Day, which was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until May 12, 1962, when President Diosdado Macapagal issued Presidential Proclamation No. 28, shifting it to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's proclamation.[16]
  5. ^ In accordance with article 11 of the Revolutionary Government Decree of June 23, 1898, the Malolos Congress selected a commission to draw up a draft constitution on September 17, 1898. The commission was composed of Hipólito Magsalin, Basilio Teodoro, José Albert, Joaquín González, Gregorio Araneta, Pablo Ocampo, Aguedo Velarde, Higinio Benitez, Tomás del Rosario, José Alejandrino, Alberto Barretto, José Ma. de la Viña, José Luna, Antonio Luna, Mariano Abella, Juan Manday, Felipe Calderón, Arsenio Cruz and Felipe Buencamino.[17] They were all wealthy and well educated.[18]

The Philippines (z/ (About this sound listen) FIL-ə-peenz; Filipino: Pilipinas [ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs] or Filipinas [ˌfɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas),[a] is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands[19] that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila.[20] Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

The Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi),[4][5] according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.[8] As of January 2018, it was the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. Approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas,[21] comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples.[22] Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Islamic nations occurred. Then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans.

The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.[23] The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons.[24]

As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution quickly followed, which then spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War.[25] Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution.[26]

It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank.[27] The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country,[28] which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing.[29] It is one of the only two predominantly Christian nations in Southeast Asia, the other being East Timor.


The Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.[30][31][32][33][34]

The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–46), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name.[25] Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has steadily gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article.[35]