Luzon Island Red.png
Luzon mainland in red;
its associated islands in maroon according to the Manila-centric view; much of the southern associated islands are geographically part of the Visayas according to the non-centric view
Luzon is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
LocationSoutheast Asia
Coordinates16°N 121°E / 16°N 121°E / 16; 121
Adjacent bodies of water
Major islands
Area109,965 km2 (42,458 sq mi)[1]
Area rank15th
Coastline3,249.6 km (2,019.21 mi)[1]
Highest elevation2,922 m (9,587 ft)
Highest pointMount Pulag
Largest settlementQuezon City (pop. 2,936,116 [2])
DemonymLuzonian (modern), Luzonese (contemporary), Luções (archaic)
Population53,336,134[a] (2015)[2]
Pop. density490 /km2 (1,270 /sq mi)
Ethnic groups

Luzon (n/ (About this sound listen); Tagalog: [luˈson]) is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. It is ranked 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern region of the archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon City, the country's most populous city. With a population of 53 million as of 2015,[2] it is the fourth most populous island in the world (after Java, Honshu, and Great Britain), having about 53% of the country's total population.

Luzon may also refer to one of the three primary island groups in the country. As such, it includes the Luzon mainland, the Batanes and Babuyan groups of islands to the north, Polillo Islands to the east, and the outlying islands of Catanduanes, Marinduque, Masbate, Romblon, Mindoro and Palawan, among others, to the south.[3]


Bangkang Pinawa, ancient Philippine Mortar and pestle.

The name Luzon is thought to derive from the Tagalog word lusong, which is a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice.[4][5]