Hungarians

Magyarok
Feszty vezerek.jpg
Total population
c. 13.1–14.7 million[note 1]
Regions with significant populations
Hungary Hungary 8,504,492[1][note 2] – 9,827,875[2][note 3]
 United States1,437,694  (2013)[3]
 Romania1,227,623  (2011)[4]
 Slovakia[note 4]458,467  (2011)[5]
 Canada315,510  (2006)[6]
 Serbia253,899  (2011)[7]
 Ukraine156,566  (2001)[8]
 Germany156,812[9]
 France100,000–200,000  (2004)[10]
 Brazil80,000[11]
 Austria77,174  (2018)[12]
 Australia67,616[13]
 United Kingdom52,250  (2011)
 Sweden40,000–70,000
 Denmark50,000-55,000
 Argentina40,000–50,000
 Croatia16,595  (2001)[14]
 Israelc. 10,000-200,000
 Ireland8,034  (2011)[15]
 Italy7,708  (2015)[16]
 Turkey6,800  (2001)[3]
 Slovenia6,243  (2002)[17]
 Czech Republic4,102  (2016)[18]
 Russia3,768  (2002)[19]
 Norway2,214  (2017)[20]
 Macedonia2,003  (2002)[21]
 Poland2,000 (2011)[22]
 New Zealandc. 2,000[23]
Languages
Hungarian
Religion
Christianity: Roman Catholicism;[24]
Protestantism (chiefly Calvinism, Unitarianism and Lutheranism); Greek Catholic; Judaism; Islam.
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Hungarians, also known as Magyars (Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language. There are an estimated 13.1–14.7 million ethnic Hungarians and their descendants worldwide, of whom 8.5–9.8 million live in today's Hungary (as of 2011).[25] About 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the 1918–1920 dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Treaty of Trianon, and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, especially Romania, Austria, Slovakia, Serbia and Ukraine. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Canada, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Australia, and Argentina. Hungarians can be classified into several subgroups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics; subgroups with distinct identities include the Székelys, the Csángós, the Palóc, and the Jász people, the latter being considered an Iranic ethnic group being closely related to the Ossetians.

Name

The Hungarians' own ethnonym to denote themselves in the Early Middle Ages is uncertain. The exonym "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from "Ugor". Prior to the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895/6 and while they lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe east of the Carpathian Mountains, written sources called the Magyars "Hungarians", specifically: "Ungri" by Georgius Monachus in 837, "Ungri" by Annales Bertiniani in 862, and "Ungari" by the Annales ex Annalibus Iuvavensibus in 881. The Magyars/Hungarians probably belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, and it is possible that they became its ethnic majority.[26] In the Early Middle Ages, the Hungarians had many names, including "Węgrzy" (Polish), "Ungherese" (Italian), "Ungar" (German), and "Hungarus".[27] The "H-" prefix is a later addition of Medieval Latin.

Another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian "Yugra" ("Югра"). It may refer to the Hungarians during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the natural borders of Europe and Asia before their conquest of the Carpathian Basin.[28]

The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym "Magyar" rather than "Hungarian".[26] "Magyar" is Finno-Ugric[29] from the Old Hungarian "mogyër". "Magyar" possibly derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the "Megyer". The tribal name "Megyer" became "Magyar" in reference to the Hungarian people as a whole.[30][31][32] "Magyar" may also derive from the Hunnic "Muageris" or "Mugel".[33]

The Greek cognate of "Tourkia" (Greek: Τουρκία) was used by the scholar and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII "Porphyrogenitus" in his De Administrando Imperio of c. AD 950,[34][35] though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars.[36] This was a misnomer, as while the Magyars had adopted some Turkic cultural traits, they are not a Turkic people.

The historical Latin phrase "Natio Hungarica" ("Hungarian nation") had a wider and political meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity or mother tongue.