Greece

Hellenic Republic
Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
Ellinikí Dimokratía  (Greek)
Motto: «Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος»
Elefthería í Thánatos
"Freedom or Death"
Anthem: «Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν»
Ýmnos eis tin Eleftherían
"Hymn to Liberty"
Location of  Greece  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Greece  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Athens
37°58′N 23°43′E / 37°58′N 23°43′E / 37.967; 23.717
Official language
and national language
Greek
Religion Eastern Orthodoxy
DemonymGreek
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Prokopis Pavlopoulos
Alexis Tsipras
Nikos Voutsis
Vasileios Peppas
LegislatureHellenic Parliament
Formation
• Union of City States as Hellenic League
338 BC
25 March 1821 (traditional starting date of the Greek War of Independence), 15 January 1822 (official declaration in the First National Assembly at Epidaurus)
3 February 1830
11 June 1975
Area
• Total
131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)[1] (95th)
• Water (%)
0.8669
Population
• 2017 estimate
10,768,477
• 2011 census
10,816,286[2] (80th)
• Density
82[3]/km2 (212.4/sq mi) (125th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$313.400 billion[4] (57th)
• Per capita
$29,090[5] (47th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$221.570 billion[6] (52nd)
• Per capita
$20,570[5] (38th)
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 33.4[7]
medium · 60th
HDI (2015)Increase 0.866[8]
very high · 29th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneEastern European Time (UTC+2)
• Summer (DST)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on theright
Calling code+30
ISO 3166 codeGR
Internet TLD.gra
.ελ
  1. The .eu domain is also used, as in other European Union member states.

Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα, About this sound Elláda [eˈlaða]), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, Ellinikí Dimokratía [eliniˈci ðimokraˈti.a]), historically also known as Hellas (Ancient Greek: Ἑλλάς, Hellás [heˈlas]), is a country located in Southern Europe,[9] with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki.

Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km (8,498 mi) in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres (9,573 ft). The country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands (including the Dodecanese and Cyclades), Thrace, Crete, and the Ionian Islands.

Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilization,[a] being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, and Western drama,[13] as well as the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis (singular polis), which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great rapidly conquering much of the ancient world, spreading Greek culture and science from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, wherein the Greek language and culture were dominant. The Greek Orthodox Church also shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World.[14] Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe and the world.[15]

Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities (precursor to the European Union) and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. It is also a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF). Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance[b] classify it as a middle power. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor.

Etymology

The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages, locations and cultures. The Greek name of the country is Hellas[25][26][27][28] (s/) or Ellada (Greek: Ελλάς or Ελλάδα; in polytonic: Ἑλλάς ([eˈlas], Ancient Greek: [heˈlas]) or Ἑλλάδα About this sound Elláda [eˈlaða]), and its official name is the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Ellinikí Dimokratía [eliniˈci ðimokraˈti.a]). In English, however, the country is usually called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia (as used by the Romans) and literally means 'the land of the Greeks'.