Brno

Brno
Statutory city
Montage of Brno • Left, row 1: Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul on Petrov hill • Left, row 2: Veveří Castle • Left, row 3: High-rise buildings • Left, row 4: Brno-Tuřany International Airport • Middle, row 1: Špilberk Castle • Middle, row 2: Ignis Brunensis international firework competition • Middle, row 3: Park Lužánky • Middle, row 4: Masaryk Circuit, the Brno racing circuit • Right, row 1: Church of St. James • Right, row 2: A ship on Brno Reservoir • Right, row 3: Mahen Theatre, a part of the National Theatre in Brno • Right, row 4: A part of the Brno Exhibition Centre
Montage of Brno
• Left, row 1: Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul on Petrov hill • Left, row 2: Veveří Castle • Left, row 3: High-rise buildings • Left, row 4: Brno-Tuřany International Airport • Middle, row 1: Špilberk Castle • Middle, row 2: Ignis Brunensis international firework competition • Middle, row 3: Park Lužánky • Middle, row 4: Masaryk Circuit, the Brno racing circuit • Right, row 1: Church of St. James • Right, row 2: A ship on Brno Reservoir • Right, row 3: Mahen Theatre, a part of the National Theatre in Brno • Right, row 4: A part of the Brno Exhibition Centre
Flag of Brno
Flag
Coat of arms of Brno
Coat of arms
Official logo of Brno
Logo
Brno is located in Czech Republic
Brno
Brno
Location of Brno in Czech Republic
Coordinates: 49°12′N 16°37′E / 49°12′N 16°37′E / 49.200; 16.617
CountryCzech Republic
Historical regionMoravia
RegionSouth Moravian Region
DistrictBrno-City District
Foundedca. 1000[1]
Administrative divisionsBohunice, Bosonohy, Bystrc, Centre, Černovice, Chrlice, Ivanovice, Jehnice, Jundrov, Kníničky, Kohoutovice, Komín, Královo Pole, Lesná, Líšeň, Maloměřice and Obřany, Medlánky, North, Nový Lískovec, Ořešín, Řečkovice and Mokrá Hora, Slatina, South, Starý Lískovec, Tuřany, Útěchov, Vinohrady, Žabovřesky, Žebětín, Židenice
Government
 • MayorPetr Vokřál (ANO 2011)
Area
 • Statutory city230.19 km2 (88.88 sq mi)
 • Land225.73 km2 (87.15 sq mi)
 • Water4.46 km2 (1.72 sq mi)
 • Metro3,170 km2 (1,220 sq mi)
Elevation[2]237 m (778 ft)
Highest elevation425 m (1,394 ft)
Lowest elevation190 m (620 ft)
Population (January 1, 2016)[3][4][5]
 • Statutory city377,028
 • Density1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
 • Metroca. 810,000 Increase
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code600 00 – 650 00
Area code(s)00420 5
Websitewww.brno.cz
Statistics statnisprava.cz

Brno (/;[6] Czech: [ˈbr̩no] (About this sound listen); German: Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the administrative center of the South Moravian Region in which it forms a separate district (Brno-City District). The city lies at the confluence of the Svitava and Svratka rivers and has about 400,000 inhabitants;[4] its greater metropolitan area[5] is home to more than 800,000 people[4] while its larger urban zone had a population of about 730,000 in 2004.[7]

Brno is the seat of judicial authority of the Czech Republic – it is the seat of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, and the Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office. The city is also a significant administrative centre. It is the seat of a number of state authorities, including the Ombudsman,[8] and the Office for the Protection of Competition.[9] Brno is also an important centre of higher education, with 33 faculties belonging to 13 institutes of higher learning and about 89,000 students.[10]

Brno Exhibition Centre ranks among the largest exhibition centres in Europe (23rd in the world).[11] The complex opened in 1928 and established the tradition of large exhibitions and trade fairs held in Brno.[12] Brno hosts motorbike and other races on the Masaryk Circuit, a tradition established in 1930, in which the Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix[13] is one of the most prestigious races. Another cultural tradition is an international fireworks competition, Ignis Brunensis,[14] that usually attracts tens of thousands of daily visitors.[15]

The most visited sights of the city include the Špilberk castle and fortress and the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul on Petrov hill, two medieval buildings that dominate the cityscape and are often depicted as its traditional symbols. The other large preserved castle near the city is Veveří Castle by Brno Reservoir.[16] This castle is the site of a number of legends, as are many other places in Brno.[17][18] Another architectural monument of Brno is the functionalist Villa Tugendhat which has been included on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.[19] One of the natural sights nearby is the Moravian Karst.

Name and etymology

The etymology of the name Brno is disputed. It might be derived from the Old Czech brnie 'muddy, swampy.'[20] Alternative derivations are from a Slavic verb brniti (to armour or to fortify) or a Celtic language spoken in the area before it was overrun by Germanic peoples and later Slavic peoples (this theory would make it cognate with other Celtic words for hill, such as the Welsh word bryn).

Throughout its history, Brno's locals also referred to the town in other languages, including Brünn in German, ברין (Brin) in Yiddish and Bruna in Latin. The city was also referred to as Brunn (n/)[21] in English, but this usage is not common today.[22]

The Asteroid 2889 Brno was named after the city, as well as the Bren light machine gun (Brno + Enfield), one of the most famous weapons of World War II.