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1913 (MCMXIII)was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1913th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 913th year of the 2nd millennium, the 13th year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1913, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- February 1 – New York City's Grand Central Terminal, having been rebuilt, reopens as the world's largest railroad station.
- February 3 – The 16th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, authorizing the Federal government to impose and collect income taxes on all sources of income, not just some.
- February 9 – Mexican Revolution: "La Decena Trágica", the rebellion of some military chiefs against the President Francisco I. Madero, begins.
- February 13 – Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama, declares the independence of Tibet from Qing Dynasty China.
- February 18 – Mexican Revolution: President Francisco I. Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez are forced to resign. Pedro Lascuráin serves as President for less than an hour, before General Victoriano Huerta, leader of the coup, takes office.
- February 22 – Mexican Revolution: Francisco I. Madero and José María Pino Suárez are assassinated.
- February 23 – Joseph Stalin is arrested by the Russian secret police, the Okhrana, in Petrograd, and exiled to Siberia.
sworn in as the 28th president of the United States.
- March 4–6 – First Balkan War – Battle of Bizani: Forces of the Kingdom of Greece capture the forts of Bizani (covering the approaches to Ioannina) from the Ottoman Empire.
- March 7 – British freighter Alum Chine, carrying 343 tons of dynamite, explodes in Baltimore harbour.
- March 12 – Australia begins building the new federal capital of Canberra.
- March 13 – Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa returns to Mexico, from his self-imposed exile in the United States.
- March 17 – The Military Aviation Academy (Escuela de Aviación Militar) is founded in Uruguay, to become the Military Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Militar) on 4 December 1952 (the Uruguayan Air Force (FAU) will grow from this foundation).
- March 18 – George I of Greece is assassinated after 50 years on the throne; he is succeeded by his son Constantine.
- March 20 – Sung Chiao-jen, a founder of the Chinese nationalist party (Kuomintang), is wounded in an assassination attempt, and dies two days later.
- March 23 – Supporters of Phan Xích Long begin a revolt against colonial rule in French Indochina.
- March 25 – The Great Dayton Flood, after four days of rain in the Miami Valley, kills over 360 and destroys 20,000 homes (chiefly in Dayton, Ohio).
- March 26
- May 3 – Raja Harishchandra, the first full-length Indian feature film, is released, marking the beginning of the Indian film industry.
- May 9–July 11 – A major industrial strike occursin the Black Country of England, involving 25,000 workers, and threatening preparations for World War I in naval and steel industries. The workers demand 23 shillings minimum wage.
- May 14 – New York Governor William Sulzer approves the charter for the Rockefeller Foundation, which begins operations with a $100,000,000 donation from John D. Rockefeller.
- May 24 – Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia marries Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover in Berlin, ending the decades-long rift between the Houses of Hohenzollern and Hanover and marking the last great gathering of European sovereigns.
- May 26 (May 13 O.S.) – Igor Sikorsky becomes the first person to pilot a 4-engine fixed-wing aircraft.
- May 29 – The ballet The Rite of Spring (music by Igor Stravinsky, conducted by Pierre Monteux, choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky and design by Nicholas Roerich) is premiered by Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris; its modernism provokes one of the most famous classical music riots in history. The audience includes Gabriele D'Annunzio, Coco Chanel, Marcel Duchamp, Harry Graf Kessler and Maurice Ravel.
- May 30 – First Balkan War: The Treaty of London is signed, ending the war. Greece is granted those parts of southern Epirus which it does not already control, and the independence of Albania is recognised.
- South Africa's first flying school opens in Kimberley to train pilots for the South African Aviation Corps, to become the South African Air Force on 1 February 1920.
- June 1 – The Greek–Serbian Treaty of Alliance is signed, paving the way for the Second Balkan War.
- June 4 – Emily Davison, a British suffragette, runs out in front of the King's horse, Anmer, at The Derby. She is trampled and dies four days later in hospital, never having regained consciousness.
- June 8 – The Deutsches Stadion in Berlin is dedicated with the release of 10,000 pigeons, in front of an audience of 60,000 people. It had been constructed in anticipation of the 1916 Summer Olympics (later to be cancelled as the result of World War I).
- June 11
- June 18 – The Arab Congress of 1913 opens, during which Arab nationalists meet to discuss desired reforms under the Ottoman Empire.
- June 19 – The Parliament of South Africa passes the Natives Land Act, limiting land ownership for blacks to black territories.
- June 13 – The predecessor of the Aldi store chain opens in Essen, Germany.
- June 24 – Joseph Cook becomes the 6th Prime Minister of Australia.
- June 29 – The Second Balkan War begins.
The Balkan boundaries after 1913
Nearly-completed Ford Model Ts at the Highland Park Plant
- October 7 – The Ford Motor Company's Highland Park Plant in Highland Park, Michigan, near Detroit, becomes the first automobile production facility in the world to implement the moving assembly line, significantly speeding up production of the Model T.
- October 9 – Canadian-owned ocean liner SS Volturno (1906), carrying passengers (mostly immigrants) and a chemical cargo from Rotterdam to New York City, catches fire in a North Atlantic gale; 136 die, but 521 are saved by ships summoned by SOS messages to the scene.
- October 10
- October 11 – The Philadelphia Athletics win the deciding game of the 1913 World Series, over baseball's New York Giants, winning 3–1 to take the series in five games.
- October 14 – Senghenydd colliery disaster: An explosion at the Universal Colliery, Senghenydd in South Wales kills 439 miners, the worst mining accident in the United Kingdom.
- October 16 – The British Royal Navy's HMS Queen Elizabeth is launched at Portsmouth Dockyard as the first oil-fired battleship.
Monument to the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig